Annual Power Engineering Exchange (APEX) Northern 2011

The Programme - Flyer


Ritika Sinha - Power Systems Group, Dept of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.

At the time of the APEX 2011 Northern Summit, Ritika was completing her BE (Hons) in Electrical and Electronics engineering at the University of Auckland.

Comparative Assessment of 11 kV Bus Protection Schemes

Timely bus protection is extremely critical due to the widespread instability of the power system that can occur due to a bus fault. In order to clear a fault in the bus, all the circuit breakers of the line that are connected to it have to be tripped. At present the protection scheme that is currently in place for the 11kV bus in most of the utilities is a directional blocking scheme which is a subset of the Zone-interlocked protection scheme.

At the University of Auckland, as part of a Part IV Final Year Project, an assessment of the various options available for Bus protection has been carried out. The protection schemes that are analyzed in detail are Zone Interlocked Bus Protection Scheme, Arc Flash Protection Scheme and Zone Interlocked Bus Protection Scheme with IEC61850 based GOOSE Messaging. The three protection schemes had to be evaluated for the following criteria: Selectivity, security, speed, cost and complexity. Simulations of fault waveforms and testing of protection relays were carried out to evaluate the performance of each protection scheme. A comparison matrix was prepared using the information obtained by testing these protection schemes in the Power systems lab. This presentation will deliver the learning and experience of this project.


[1] IEEE C37.234 Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Power System Buses, 2009, pp 2-3, 19-24, 56-60.
[2] Oza A. B., Nair N. C., et al, “Power System Protection and Switchgear”, Tata McGraw-Hill Education Private Ltd, New Delhi, c2010, pp 284-298
[3] Wilson, R.A.; Harju, R.; Keisala, J.; Ganesan, S.;, "Tripping with the Speed of Light: Arc Flash Protection," 60th Annual Conference for Protective Relay Engineers, pp.226-238, 27- 29 March 2007.
[4] ] Apostolov, A.; Vandiver, B.; , "Functional Testing of IEC 61850 Based Protection Relays," 60th Annual Conference for Protective Relay Engineers, pp.333-340, 27-29 March 2007.


Stephen Butler

Challenges and considerations for incorporating offshore renewable energy sources

Time Field

Robust Method for Calculating the Power System Reserve Capacity of Dist Feeders

Noel Gomes/Manuj Daxena

Gomes & Saxena - Over Frequency Reserves in the North Island

Edwin Leong

Leong, Edwin - PMBOK application

Gurjeet Malhi

Different Approach to Peak Load Forecast

Michael O'Brien

Integrating Asset Related Data for Better Asset Management Decisions

Shreejan Pandey

Re-vitalising a 50 Year old micro hydro-power system

Ashneel Prasad

Standardised Building Design for Zone Substation

Geoffry Sams

Art of Operations Planning

Ritika Sinha

Comparative Assessment of 11kV Bus Protection Schemes

Craig Smith

Future applications for STATCOM in NZ

Dave Smith

33kV Terminations - Scary Stuff

Howard Wardley

Engineering Multivendor IEC 61850 Solutions

Brad Whitaker

Internal Arc Classified Prefabricated Substations

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